Entries in Pittsburgh Compound B (1)

Monday
Jul102017

Childhood epilepsy may be associated with increased β-amyloid accumulation in adulthood

Adults with childhood-onset epilepsy appear to have increased β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque accumulation compared to healthy controls, according to a recently published study conducted in Finland [1]. Brain Aβ plaque deposition was analyzed in 41 participants from a cohort of late middle- aged individuals with childhood-onset epilepsy and 46 matched controls using carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) [1].  Aβ plaque accumulation, a well- known hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), occurs in the brain years before the appearance of the first cognitive symptoms [2]. The participants with childhood-onset epilepsy are involved in the Turku Adult Childhood Onset Epilepsy TACOE study [3], which has followed them for 5 decades.

Childhood epilepsy was associated with increased PiB uptake compared to controls [1]. In a semi-quantitative analysis, the AD risk gene, APO ε4, together with idiopathic epilepsy, was also found to be associated with increased PiB uptake [1]. The findings are noteworthy as the effects of childhood epilepsy on the brain and cognition later in life are not well understood. Future studies are needed to examine whether childhood epilepsy might be a risk factor for AD. Well known risk factors for AD include Down syndrome, genetic abnormalities, cardiovascular disease and traumatic brain injury [2, 4]. AD is the most common form of dementia and there is no treatment [2]. At present, an estimated 5.4 million Americans have Alzheimer's disease [2].

-JKR

 

 [1] Joutsa J, Rinne JO, Hermann B, Karrasch M, Anttinen A, Shinnar S, Sillanpää M. Association Between Childhood-Onset Epilepsy and Amyloid Burden 5 Decades Later. JAMA Neurol. 2017;74(5):583-590.

[2] Alzheimer's Association. 2016 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement. 2016;12(4):459-509.

[3] Sillanpää M, Jalava M, Kaleva O, Shinnar S. Long-term prognosis of seizures with onset in childhood. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(24):1715-22.

[4] Zigman WB, Lott IT. Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome: neurobiology and risk. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2007;13(3):237-46.