Entries in computational (1)

Tuesday
Jul192016

Brains Understanding Computers Understanding Brains

“Computers aren’t smart.”  That’s the first thing my professor said on the first day of in Intro to Computer Science. “They’re dumb, but they’re fast,” he added.  At first I couldn’t believe what my professor was saying.  Computers seem to be quite intelligent.  IBM’s Watson could compete with Jeopardy! champions.  Need to know the answer to a question?  Just type it into Google.  Over the last few years, as I’ve learned more about computer science, I’ve come to learn that what my professor said on that first day of class is absolutely true.
In order to work, computers require extremely specific and detailed instructions laid out in a code they can understand.  Leave out a semicolon at the end of a line?  Forget it.  The computer will stop working.  A computer is nothing without a human brain to help it along.
The real value to a computer, of course, is its speed.  Today, an average laptop can carry out over a billion instructions in just one second.  Need to add up a million numbers in a spreadsheet?  Today’s computers can do so instantly.  Today’s computers can analyze massive amounts of data in very short amounts of time.
This is welcome feature for researchers studying the brain.  A single brain scan today can generate several gigabytes of data.  Even 25 years ago, this was unthinkable [1].  With new projects like the US Government’s BRAIN Initiative, research centers across the country are generating more data on the human brain than ever before [2].  To analyze this data, researchers are working hard to develop new algorithms and computational techniques.  Many scientists have expressed how important it is to train new researchers in the science of “big data” if we are ever going to truly understand how the brain works [3], [4].
The “big data” methods being used to better understand the human brain are the same that determine which advertisements show up in your web browser; the same that help Google decide what you’re searching for; the same that stock brokers use on Wall Street; and the same that the NSA controversially uses to “protect” sensitive American communications.
With big data, computers are starting to look like they might actually be smarter than humans.  But this isn’t true.  Without a human brain to ask the right questions and interpret the results, big data algorithms are worthless.  Rather, humans and computers are beginning to form a symbiotic relationship.  We use computers to speed up our own mental processing.  And now in neuroscience, we use computers and the artificial intelligence we have given them, to better understand our own intelligence, and our own minds.
- TMM
[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_hard_disk_drives
[2] http://www.braininitiative.nih.gov/index.htm
[3] Sukel, K. “Big Data and the Brain: Peaking at the Future of Neuroscience.” BrainFacts.org, 8 Dec 2015. Web.
[4] Van Horn, JD. “Opinion: Big data biomedicine offers big higher education opportunities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 7 June 2016:113(23):6322-4 doi: 10.1073/pnas/1607582113.