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Monday
Nov142016

A Primer on Hormonal Hunting on World Diabetes Day! 

 

As a diabetic, I dread the feeling of hypoglycemia. It happens when I spend hours in the lab and forget to eat, when I overestimate my appetite and give too much insulin or when I exercise without making sure to give my body some extra sugar. Non-diabetic colleagues of mine claim to know the feeling of just craving sweets, feeling week and being unable to focus. I don’t know if they fully understand how it feels though when you break into cold sweat, you feel like you can’t hold yourself upright and certainly can’t keep your thoughts organized. It’s awful. So awful, evolution decided that it would be a great way to weaken prey and make it easier to hunt!
Snails aren’t exactly fast enough to catch fish under normal circumstances, but cone snails use venom to disorient small schools of fish and use their extended mouth like a net to catch their prey. Conus geographus and Conus tulipa, two cone snail species, have been found to use a very remarkable strategy to disorient their prey – they target their energy metabolism to induce hypoglycemic shock. The component of their toxin that is responsible for that reaction in fish is a modified version of insulin. Interestingly, the peptide is much more similar to fish insulin than the mollusk’s own, yet bears the typical posttranslational modification signature of the snail’s usual toxins. 
While I certainly empathize with the poor fish who die in this dreadful manner, I would very much die without insulin and am therefore very thankful to the founders of Genentech, who enabled humanized insulin production through their recombinant DNA technology which is now used by Eli Lilly to keep millions of diabetics healthy and happy. For humans insulin isn’t exactly a great weapon: A review from 2009 stated that only 66 cases of homicide by insulin have been reported, in which 11 needed an additional weapon. As I said… It’s slow and painful, but definitely gives you enough time for a 911 call. 
MGS
1) PNAS 2015 112(6), 1743-8
2) Drug Test Anal 2009 1(4), 162-76

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